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Civil engineers and architects all around the world use different types of building to construct a structure based different requirements of the clients. Six building construction types are-
Base foundations- This is an element of the structure of a building which connects the structure to the ground and plays a role in transferring the weight of the structure to the ground. Foundations laid are either shallow or deep, depending on the land where the structure is built. There are different types of foundation such as the earthfast foundation also called as the post in ground foundation, padstones, stone foundations and rubble trench foundations.
Load Bearing Walls– The load bearing walls act as the active structural element of a building on which the weight of the elements of building is put upon. The weight from the load bearing walls is put on the base foundations of the building. The thickness and height of the load bearing walls is decided based on the height of the building. Without proper estimation and required thickness of the wall, the building might become unstable and collapse. Load bearing walls also help in giving the house a structure and separating one room of the house from the other.
Monolithic Method– This is type of construction where the structure is built from one huge rock or marble. Most of the key components of a house such as the walls, beams, floor slabs, staircases, balconies, and storage lofts these days are built using the monolithic method. The monolithic method has several advantages such as durability, less weight on the load bearing walls or the base foundation, more economical, and can be put as a part of the structure much faster than any other method.
Pre Cast Method– This is a construction product which is produced by casting using a reusable mold or form. This already set structure is the transferred to the construction site and the structure is then attached to the rest of the building. Walls made from pre-cast method are majorly used for interior structures. Pre cast walls are made from compressed concrete or stone.
Steel Framed Structures– This is a type of construction where the skeleton of the building is made from steel structure. The steel structures are made from steel columns and horizontally hoisted beams constructed in rectangular shapes to provide support to the floors of the building. This technique is used for the construction of sky scrapers and other building made from glass.
Concrete Framed Structures– One of the most common type of building structures, concrete framed structures is a type of building whose skeleton is made from concrete. Horizontal elements of the concrete frame are called beams and the vertical elements form the columns. Concrete slabs are used to provide a structure for floors and they act as the primary load bearers of the building.
There is a lot of science and experience behind the construction of a building. The process of constructing a building takes several months and has different logics and techniques attached to it. Civil engineers and architects around the world follow some popular techniques. They are-
Scaffolding– Scaffolding or staging is a temporary structure which is used to support the work crew of the building. It is used by the work crew to pass on materials required for the construction work, maintenance and repair of buildings. Scaffolds are used to get access to heights or places that are hard to get to while constructing a building.
Form Work– Formwork is used to pour concrete or similar materials. Formwork is the temporary or permanent molds into which the concrete is poured. The form work molds are also called as the shuttering molds. There are different types of formwork such as traditional timber formwork, engineered formwork system, re-usable plastic formwork, permanent insulated formwork, Stay-in-place structural formwork, flexible formwork, or slab formwork.
Tying of rebar– Also known as reinforcing bar, this is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires which is used as a tension device for reinforced masonry structures or reinforced concrete. Rebar increases the tensile strength of the concrete structure which is otherwise weak. The compression by rebar is what makes the tensile strength of the concrete stronger.
Concreting– this is the technique which involves pouring concrete into a mass to solidify the area. This involves mixing together various ingredients to make a concrete such as water, cement, aggregate and any other additives required. This technique is time sensitive and should be done with utmost care.
Curing– Curing is a process which is used for maintaining the required moisture content and temperature in a freshly cast concrete for a particular period of time. There are different methods for the curing of concrete such as shading of concrete work by preventing the evaporation of water from the concrete surface, covering the concrete surfaces with wet gunny bags or hessian which are periodically wet, sprinkling of water from time to time on the concrete, ponding method in which small ponds using gunny bags or hessian are created on large concrete slabs, membrane curing in which the concrete surface is covered with a water-proof material, and steam curing where the concrete is exposed to a particular temperature of steam to maintain the moisture.
Brick Work– Brickwork is the masonry produced by using bricks to create a bricklayer. This is used to build walls and other structures in buildings such as cupboards. The usual dimension of bricks is common in majority of the places which is 215mm*102.5mm*65mm.